We are interested in the study of neural basis of behavior with a neuroethological approach in which we analyze both environmental influences as well as evolutionary aspects. Understanding the neural control of behavior in vertebrates is extremely challenging, but the conservation of a core Social Brain Network across vertebrate taxa allows the use of tractable animal models to gain insight into general strategies of control. We are studying the neural basis of reproductive and aggressive behavior in two species of electric fish with different sociality, combining field work, behavioral recordings, pharmacological modulations, electrophysiology and cellular approaches. We are focusing on the identification of the neural features that underlie the high year round aggressiveness and territoriality of one species and the gregarious behavior and seasonal aggression of the other.